It was followed by others sent by his brother Jonathan 15 years later, by Simeon inand by Hyrcanus I in Ineither these emissaries or the other Jews living in Rome were apparently accused of conducting religious propaganda among the Roman population and expelled from the city. However, the decree soon became obsolete.
The Colosseum in Rome, built c. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD.
Romea settlement around a ford on the river Tiber conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for a period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.
The tradition handed down seven kings: In BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic.
In the wake of Julius Caesar 's rise and death in the first century B. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustusbegan a golden age of peace and prosperity.
The Italian Peninsula was named Italia and, as the territory of the city of Rome, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces ". At its height under Trajanit covered 5 million square kilometres. The Western Empireunder the pressure of the barbarian invasionseventually dissolved in AD, when its last Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacerwhile the Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years.
After the fall of the Western Roman EmpireItaly fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdomand, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The invasion of another Germanic tribethe Lombardslate in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years.
The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.
Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy Seelocal communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order.
In a league of city-states, the Lombard Leaguedefeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnanothus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.
Flag of the Italian Navydisplaying the coat of arms of the most prominent maritime republics: VeniceGenoaPisa and Amalfi In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient. They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire.
All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracythe relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.
Venice and Genoa were Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery.
The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned. The republics were heavily involved in the Crusadesproviding support but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.
In Sardiniathe former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Giudicatialthough some parts of the island became controlled by Genoa or Pisa until the Aragonese annexation in the 15th century.
The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. Early Modern Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in In the 14th and 15th centuries, northern-central Italy was divided into a number of warring city-statesthe rest of the peninsula being occupied by the larger Papal States and the Kingdom of Sicilyreferred to here as Naples.
Though many of these city-states were often formally subordinate to foreign rulers, as in the case of the Duchy of Milanwhich was officially a constituent state of the mainly Germanic Holy Roman Empirethe city-states generally managed to maintain de facto independence from the foreign sovereigns that had seized Italian lands following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
The strongest among these city-states gradually absorbed the surrounding territories giving birth to the Signorieregional states often led by merchant families which founded local dynasties. War between the city-states was endemic, and primarily fought by armies of mercenaries known as condottieribands of soldiers drawn from around Europe, especially Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian captains.
This peace would hold for the next forty years. The Renaissancea period of vigorous revival of the arts and culture, originated in Italy due to a number of factors: Leonardo da Vincithe quintessential Renaissance manin a self-portrait, c.
Royal LibraryTurin The Medici became the leading family of Florence and fostered and inspired the birth of the Italian Renaissance,   along with other families of Italy, such as the Visconti and Sforza of Milanthe Este of Ferraraand the Gonzaga of Mantua.
Greatest artists like Leonardo da VinciBrunelleschiBotticelliMichelangeloGiottoDonatelloTitian and Raphael produced inspired works — their paintwork was more realistic-looking than had been created by Medieval artists and their marble statues rivalled and sometimes surpassed those of Classical Antiquity.Caught in that sensual music all neglect Monuments of unageing intellect.
William Butler Yeats (–), "Sailing to Byzantium". Rome casts a long shadow. I am writing in the Latin alphabet. I am using the Roman calendar, with its names of the months.
The most powerful city-states were Florence, The Papal States (centered in Rome), Venice, and Milan. Each of these states grew up with its own distinctive character, very much due to the different forms of government that presided over each.
Another important feature of Venice is the manufacturing of glass on the Murano island, an artisan activity which has made the city one of the biggest producers of glass in Europe; the unique high-quality materials they use and the craftsmanship are unrivalled.
Venice - History: Uniquely among Italy’s chief cities, Venice came into being after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West. The Lombard hordes, whose incursions into northern Italy began in ad , drove great numbers of mainlanders onto the islands of the lagoon, previously the homes of itinerant fishermen and salt workers.
The isolated . A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore. The main public square of the Italian city of Venice is the Piazza San Marco (St.
Mark’s Square). Around this square are some of the most recognizable buildings in Venice. The most famous of these.