British politics and culture since 1945

British, Britannic Orientation Identification.

British politics and culture since 1945

Though she takes little direct part in government, the Crown remains the fount in which ultimate executive power over government lies. These powers are known as royal prerogative and can be used for a vast amount of things, such as the issue or withdrawal of passports, to the dismissal of the Prime Minister or even the declaration of war.

The powers are delegated from the monarch personally, in the name of the Crown, and can be handed to various ministers, or other officers of the Crown, and can purposely bypass the consent of Parliament. The head of Her Majesty's Governmentthe prime minister, also has weekly meetings with the sovereign, where she may express her feelings, warn, or advise the prime minister in the government's work.

The United Kingdom Government[ edit ] The monarch appoints a Prime Minister as the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdomguided by the strict convention that the Prime Minister should be the member of the House of Commons most likely to be able to form a Government with the support of that House.

In practice, this means that the leader of the political party with an absolute majority of seats in the House of Commons is chosen to be the Prime Minister. If no party has an absolute majority, the leader of the largest party is given the first opportunity to form a coalition.

The Prime Minister then selects the other Ministers which make up the Government and act as political heads of the various Government Departments. About twenty of the most senior government ministers make up the Cabinet and approximately ministers in total comprise the government.

In accordance with constitutional conventionall ministers within the government are either Members of Parliament or peers in the House of Lords. As in some other parliamentary systems of government especially those based upon the Westminster Systemthe executive called "the government" is drawn British politics and culture since 1945 and is answerable to Parliament - a successful vote of no confidence will force the government either to resign or to seek a parliamentary dissolution and a general election.

In practice, members of parliament of all major parties are strictly controlled by whips who try to ensure they vote according to party policy. If the government has a large majority, then they are very unlikely to lose enough votes to be unable to pass legislation.

They are responsible for chairing Cabinet meetings, selecting Cabinet ministers and all other positions in Her Majesty's governmentand formulating government policy. The Prime Minister being the de facto leader of the UK, he or she exercises executive functions that are nominally vested in the sovereign by way of the Royal Prerogatives.

British politics and culture since 1945

Historically, the British monarch was the sole source of executive powers in the government. However, following the lead of the Hanoverian monarchs, an arrangement of a "Prime Minister" chairing and leading the Cabinet began to emerge.

Over time, this arrangement became the effective executive branch of government, as it assumed the day-to-day functioning of the British government away from the sovereign.

Theoretically, the Prime Minister is primus inter pares i. While the Prime Minister is the senior Cabinet Minister, they are theoretically bound to make executive decisions in a collective fashion with the other Cabinet ministers.

Cabinet meetings are typically held weekly, while Parliament is in session. Government departments and the Civil Service[ edit ] The Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of ministries known mainly, though not exclusively as departments, e. These are politically led by a Government Minister who is often a Secretary of State and member of the Cabinet.

He or she may also be supported by a number of junior Ministers. In practice, several government departments and Ministers have responsibilities that cover England alone, with devolved bodies having responsibility for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, for example - the Department of Healthor responsibilities that mainly focus on England such as the Department for Education.

Implementation of the Minister's decisions is carried out by a permanent politically neutral organisation known as the civil service. Its constitutional role is to support the Government of the day regardless of which political party is in power.

Unlike some other democracies, senior civil servants remain in post upon a change of Government. Administrative management of the Department is led by a head civil servant known in most Departments as a Permanent Secretary.

British politics and culture since 1945

The majority of the civil service staff in fact work in executive agencieswhich are separate operational organisations reporting to Departments of State. This is because most Government Departments have headquarters in and around the former Royal Palace Whitehall.

Devolved national administrations[ edit ] Main article: Scottish Government The Scottish Government is responsible for all issues that are not explicitly reserved to the United Kingdom Parliament at Westminsterby the Scotland Act ; including NHS Scotlandeducationjusticerural affairs, and transport.

The First Minister then appoints their Ministers now known as Cabinet Secretaries and junior Ministers, subject to approval by the Parliament.

They are collectively known as "the Scottish Ministers". Welsh Government The Welsh Government and the National Assembly for Wales have more limited powers than those devolved to Scotland, [7] although following the passing of the Government of Wales Act and the Welsh devolution referendum,the Assembly can now legislate in some areas through an Act of the National Assembly for Wales.

Following the electionWelsh Labour held exactly half of the seats in the Assembly, falling just short of an overall majority. Northern Ireland Executive[ edit ] Main article: The two positions are currently vacant and there has been no Executive since January because of the Renewable Heat Incentive scandal and the failure to form a government following the Assembly's snap election in March The United Kingdom is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, currently Theresa May, is the head of government.

Executive power is exercised by the British government, on behalf of and. The Great War was to temporarily increase British imperial control over Egypt. Almost immediately, the press was muzzled, nationalist meetings were prevented from occurring or broken up and the new Legislative Council was suspended.

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The culture of the United Kingdom is influenced by the UK's history as a developed state, a liberal democracy and a great power; its predominantly Christian religious life; and its composition of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and wider culture of Europe has also influenced British culture, and.

Taught by professor Amy Hungerford, The American Novel Since offers an introduction to the fertile literary period that followed World War II.

The course description reads: In "The American Novel Since " students will study a wide range of works from to the present. The course traces the formal and thematic developments of the novel in this period, focusing on the relationship.

"Consensus politics" is the notion that forapproximately a quarter of a century after there existed abroad measure of agreement between the major political partiesabout the role and objectives of government and the fundamentalbases of policy, domestic and foreign.

Britain since Labour and the welfare state (–51) Labour rejoiced at its political triumph, the first independent parliamentary majority in the party’s history, but it faced grave problems.

Culture of England - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family