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The logic of the qualitative survey in comparison to the statistical survey  3. Material object, formal object, empirical domain and unit of observation Qualitative and statistical surveys may start from identical aims and even from identical research questions.
In practice some researchers and research agencies transform any research question into a standardized questionnaire in order to measure frequencies and correlations. Others systematically opt for semi-structured interviews, translating every research question into a question about diversity in the participants' meanings or practices.
The empirical domain is the social space about which the researcher wants to draw conclusions. That is the selected population. Formally speaking, as said before, surveys may concern any collection, not only of groups of personsbut of any kind of units such as animals, trees, artifacts.
The population may also be a collection of complex social entities cases like school classes, department boards or TV programs.
A survey might observe processes of playmate selection in school classes or decision making at board meetings in a multinational company, or discourses on ethnicity in soap series. However, with complex units like these, studies are most often labeled according to the type of data collection, e.
This equally holds true for qualitative surveys and statistical surveys. This aim requires a probability sample. In order to establish the statistical reliability of estimates the researcher needs to know the probability for each member of the population to be selected in the sample.
Therefore, one needs a full register of population members as a sampling frame. This could be achieved by a large random sample, but this method would not be very efficient. It is both logical and more efficient to purposively select a diversity sample with the aim to cover all existing relevant varieties of the phenomenon saturation.
What saturation is depends on the type and degree of diversity that is judged relevant. Take as an example, a study of the colors of coats that students wear.
To be sure that all forms of diversity are covered it would be necessary to include the whole population in the sample, because the number of colors that our eyes and brains can distinguish is innumerable.
However, for a single study it might be sufficient to distinguish only, say, ten colors. At that low level of detail a small sample may provide sufficient saturation. Here also all the members of the population under study should be included to guarantee full and detailed coverage.
Therefore, in an inductive description of diversity i. In a qualitative survey, saturation is an empirical question, not so much a theoretical one, as in Grounded Theory. The goal is not to detail concepts exhaustively for a theoretical domain i.
Both statistical and qualitative surveys may collect data by questioning people—which is the most common type of survey—but also by observing interactions or artifacts in any kind of situation.
In most cases researchers want to get more out of it, however, in terms of: This is very common in market research for instance, under the assumption that correct statistical representation is not important when it comes to relationships between variables. In practice, however, most often a dichotomous classification is used by distinguishing univariate versus multivariate analysis.
Some types of multivariate analysis are descriptive e. Explanation relates descriptive categories or dimensions to context social, biographical, socio-historical, political, etc. Most often, description and explanation are intertwined in the process of analysis.
Unidimensional description In analyses of diversity three logical levels of diversity have to be distinguished: Frequency, timing and dosage are three dimensions of it; variability is a sub-dimension of all three dimensions mentioned; fixed and varying are two categories of variability.
Organizing codes into objects, dimensions and categories  Formally speaking, the coding of a data fragment may be either downward i. Downward coding specifies diversity within an object by distinguishing dimensions and diversity within dimensions by distinguishing categories.
It moves towards a lower level of abstraction. It moves towards a higher level of abstraction. Different aims or reasons for benzodiazepine use like "anxiety," "to feel better," "to be more confident" as reported by respondents may be coded synthetically as tranquillizing in contrast to sleeping.
Downward and upward coding of a data fragment Figure 2b: Example from the benzodiazepine study 1  In some cases description may just consist of a list of topics objects as found in the data, whether predefined or not and whether illustrated by quotes or not, e.
In those cases the analysis consists of classifying relevant data into a neat and handy list; it does not add a structure, i.Survey research is a commonly used method of collecting information about a population of interest. There are many different types of surveys, several ways .
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On this page you can learn How to introduce methodology in the essay. Download Project Methodology Examples for free and get free tips on writing here. your research method may take different forms. Some of the examples of research methods are: experimental, expository, action, pure, and applied research.
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